Biochemical and clinical effects of whey protein supplementation in Parkinson’s Disease: a pilot study

Piyaratana Tosukhowonga, Chanchai Boonlaa, Thasinas Dissayabutraa, Lalita Kaewwilaib, Sasipa Muensria, Chanisa Chotipanichc, Juho Joutsad, Juha Rinned, Roongroj Bhidayasirib,e
aDepartment of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. bChulalongkorn Center of Excellence for Parkinson’s Disease and Related Disorders, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. cNational Cyclotron and PET Center, Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. dTurku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. eDepartment of Rehabilitation Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan.


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Prehabilitation with whey protein supplementation on perioperative functional exercise capacity in patients undergoing colorectal resection for cancer: a pilot double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial

Chelsia Gillis, MSc, RD*; Sarah-Eve Loiselle, PDt**; Julio F. Fiore, Jr, PhD, PT; Rashami Awasthi; Linda Wykes, PhD; A. Sender Liberman, MD; Barry Stein, MD; Patrick Charlebois, MD; Francesco Carli, MD, MPhil.
*Certified in Canada; **Professional dietitian certified in Quebec (equivalent to RD); Department of Anesthesia, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Anesthesia, McGill University, Montreal, QC.


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Effect of cysteine-rich whey protein (Immunocal) supplementation in combination with resistance training on muscle strength and lean body mass in non-frail elderly subjects: a randomized, double-blind controlled study

Karelis AD1,2, Messier V3, Suppère P3, Briand R3, Rabasa-Lhoret R,3,4,5.
1Department of Kinanthropology, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada; 2Centre de recherche de l’Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; 3Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal (IRCM), Montréal, Canada; 4Department of Nutrition, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; 5Montreal Diabetes Research Center (MDRC), Montréal, Canada. Corresponding author : Antony Karelis PhD, Department of Kinanthropology, Université du Québec à Montréal, 8888 succ centre-ville, Montréal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3P8

J NUTR HEALTH AGING 2015;19(5):531-6

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Prehabilitation versus rehabilitation a randomized control trial in patients undergoing colorectal resection for cancer

Gillis C,1, Li C,2, Lee L,2 Awasthi R,1 Agustin B,1 Gamsa A,3 Liberman AS,2 Stein B,2 Charlebois P,2 Feldman LS,2 Carli F,3 Phil M.,
1Department of Anesthesia, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Anesthesia, McGill University, Montreal, QC.

ANESTHESIOLOGY 2014; 121:937-47

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Psoriasis Improvement in Patients Using Glutathione-enhancing, Nondenatured Whey Protein Isolate: A Pilot Study

1,2Ronald Prussick, MD; 1Lisa Prussick, BSc; 3,4Jimmy Gutman, MD
1Washington Dermatology Center, North Bethesda, Maryland; 2Assistant Clinical Professor, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 3McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 4Immunotec

J CLIN AESTHET DETERMATOL, 2013;6(10):23-26)

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Immunocal and preservation of glutathione as a novel neuroprotective strategy for degenerative disorders of the nervous system

Ross EK1, Gray JJ, Winter AN, Linseman DA
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, 2199 S. University Blvd., Denver, CO 80208, USA


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Therapeutic antioxidants for neurodegenerative disease

Linseman DA
Department of Biological Sciences and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA. Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, Colorado, USA


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Effects of Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) on the Distributions of Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Rats with Excessive Alcohol Intake

Tseng YM, Tsai SM, Lin WS, Huang ZR, Lin CC, Yeh WH, Wu YR, Tsai LY
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Number 386, Ta-chung 1st road, Kaohsiung 81346 Taiwan

J AGRIC FOOD CHEM 58:12729-12734 (2010)

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Open-Labeled Pilot Study of Cysteine-Rich Whey Protein Isolate Supplementation for Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Patients

Taned Chitapanarux1, Prasong Tienboon2, Suwalee Pojchamarnwiputh3 and Donrawee Leelarungrayub4
1Division of Gastrohepatology, Department of Medicine, 2Division of Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, 3Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, and 4Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Thailand


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Bringing evidence to complementary and alternative medicine in children with cancer: focus on nutrition-related therapies

Kelly Kara M., MD

PEDIATR BLOOD CANCER 2008;50:490-493

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Effects of Alcohol-Induced Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC) Pretreated Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) on Oxidative Damage

Tseng YM, Chen SY, Chen CH, Jin YR, Tsai SM, Chen IJ, Lee JH, Chiu CC, Tsai LY
Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

J AGRIC FOOD CHEM. 56:8141-8147 (2008)

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Oral Tolerability of Cysteine-Rich Whey Protein Isolate in Autism-A Pilot Study

Janet K. Kern1, Bruce D. Grannemann1, Jimmy Gutman2, Muadhukar H. Trivedi1
1University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, 2McGill University, Canada and Immunotec Inc. Montreal, QC Canada

JANA Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008

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Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Nutrition Committee

Paul C. Rogers, MB ChB, MBA1, Steven J. Melnick, MD, PhD2, Elena J. Ladas, MS3, Jacqueline Hamilton, MD4, Jacques Baillargeon, PhD5, and Nancy Sacks, MS6
1British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2Miami Children’s Hospital, Miami, Florida, 3Columbia University, Children’s Hospital of New York, NY, 4Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 5University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, 6The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

PEDIATR BLOOD CANCER, 50:447-450 (2008)

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Aberrant Insulin Receptor Signaling and Amino Acid Homeostasis as a Major Cause of Oxidative Stress in Aging

W. Dröge1, R. Kinscherf2
1Dept. Research & Development, Immunotec Inc., Vaudreuil, Quebec, Canada, 2Dept. Anatomy & Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany


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Cysteine-Rich Protein Reverses Weight Loss in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy

R. Tozer1, P. Tai2, W. Falconer3, T. Ducruet4, A. Karabadjian5, G. Bounous6, J. Molson6, and W. Dröge6
1Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 2Radiation Oncology, Allan Blair Cancer Center, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, 3Cancer Nutrition & Rehabilitation Program, Dept. of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. Canada, 4Boreal Primum Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 5Medscope Communications Inc., St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada, 6Immunotec Research Ltd. Vaudreuil, Quebec Canada


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Whey Protein Concentrate Promotes the Production of Glutathione (GSH) by GSH Reductase in the PC12 Cell Line After Acute Ethanol Exposure

Tseng YM, Lin SK, Hsiao JK, Chen IJ, Lee JH, Wu SH, Tsai LY
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 81346, Taiwan; Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80702, Taiwan

FOOD CHEM TOXICOL. 44:574-578, (2006)

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Effects of cysteine donor supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

JM Baumann, KW Rundell, TM Evans, AM Levine
American College of Sports Medicine. Marywood University, Human Performance Laboratory, Scranton, PA

MED. SCI. SPORTS EXERC., VOL. 37, NO. 9, PP. 1468-1473, 2005

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Oxidative stress and ageing: is ageing a cysteine deficiency syndrome?

W. Dröge
Division of Redox Physiology and Aging Research, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

PHIL. TRANS. R. SOC. B. 360, 2355-2372 (2005)

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Molecular Pathogenesis and Prevention of Prostate Cancer

G. Bounous, D. Beer

ANTICANCER RESEARCH 24: 553-554 (2004)

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Improved Glutathione Status in Young Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Supplemented with Whey Protein

V Grey1, SR Mohammed2, AA Smountas2, R Bahlool2, LC Lands2
1The Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster Division, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 2The Department of Respiratory Medicine, McGill University Medical Center, Montreal Children’s Hospital,Montreal, Quebec, H3H 1P3, Canada


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Milk Whey Protein Decreases Oxygen Free Radical Production in a Murine Model of Chronic Iron-Overload Cardiomyopathy

WJ Bartfay, MT Davis, JM Medves, S Lugowski


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The Antioxidant System

G. Bounous and J.H. Molson
Research and Development Department Immunotec Research Ltd., Vaudreuil-Dorion, Quebec, Canada

ANTICANCER RESEARCH 23: 1411-1416 (2003)

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Treatment of Obstructive Airway Disease with a Cysteine Donor Protein Supplement: A Case Report

Bryce Lothian, MD*, Vijaylaxmi Grey, PhD*†, R. John Kimoff, MD‡, Larry Lands, MD, PhD*§
*Department of Pediatrics, †Department of Biochemistry, §Division of Respiratory Medicine, McGill University Health Centre-Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
‡Division of Respiratory Medicine, McGill University Health Centre-Royal Victoria Hospita, Montreal, Quebec, Canada


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Nutritional therapy of chronic hepatitis by whey protein (non-heated)

A. Watanabe, K. Okada, Y. Shimizu, H. Wakabayashi, K. Higuchi, K. Niiya, Y. Kuwabara, T. Yasuyama, H. Ito, T. Tsukishiro, Y. Kondoh* and H. Kohri*
Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan, and *Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc., Nutrition Research Institute, Tokushima. Japan.

J Med. 2000; 31(5-6):283-302.

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Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) and Glutathione Modulation in Cancer Treatment

Gustavo Bounous, M.D., F.R.C.S. (C)

ANTICANCER RESEARCH 20: 4785-4792, 2000.

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Enhancing Effect of Patented Whey Protein Isolate (Immunocal) On the Cytotoxicity of Anti-Cancer Drug

Wayne Y. Tsai, Wen-Huei Chang, Ching-Hsein Chen, and Fung-Jou Lu
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.


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Competition for Glutathione Precursors between the Immune System and the Skeletal Muscle: Pathogenesis of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

G. Bounous1, J. Molson2
1Former Professor, Department of Surgery, McGill University, and career Investigation of the Medical Research Council of Canada. 21994 Quebec Cycling Champion. Road and Time Trial

MEDICAL HYPOTHESES (1999) 53(4): 347-349 – ©1999 HARCOURT PUBLISHERS LTD. – ARTICLE NO. MEHY. 1998.0780)

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The Effect of Supplementation with a Cysteine Donor on Muscular Performance

LC Lands, MD, PhD*†, VL Grey, PhD†‡, AA Smountas, BSc*
*Division of Respiratory Medicine, †Department of Pediatrics, ‡Department of Biochemistry, McGill University Health Centre-Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada


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Nutriceutical Modulation of Glutathione with a Humanized Native Milk Serum Protein Isolate, Immunocal: Application in Aids and Cancer

S. Baruchel1, G. Viau1, R. Olivier2, G. Bounous3, M.A. Wainberg4
1McGill University – Montreal Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2Pasteur Institute Paris, France, 3Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 4Jewish General Hospital, Lady Davis Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Oxidative Stress in Cancer, Aids, and Neurodegenerative Diseases – Luc Montagnier et Al., (Ed.) Marcel Dekker Inc., New York: 447-461, 1998

Abstract: The biological activity of the proteins isolated from cow’s milk in Immunocal depends on the preservation of those labile proteins which share with the predominant human milk proteins the same extremely rare glutathione (GSH)-promoting components.  Cellular GSH depletion has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of degenerative conditions and disease states including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, arteriosclerosis, cataracts, cystic fibrosis, malnutrition, aging, AIDS, and cancer.

This newly discovered nutriceutical modulation of GSH by the use of humanized native milk serum protein isolate of bovine origin in AIDS and cancer may well find other applications in disease where oxidative stress and pathology of GSH metabolism are largely implicated.  In a pilot study, this type of whey protein concentrate was found to be well tolerated in children with AIDS and wasting syndrome and was found associated with an improvement of the nutritional status of the patient.  Moreover, the GSH promoting activity on the peripheral blood lymphocyte of this protein concentrate was validated in patients with initial low GSH levels.  Extensive pharmaco-epidemiological study of GSH metabolism and standardized methods of measurement of intracellular GSH applicable in clinical trials are needed in order to better define the clinical application of this new type of therapy.

In Vitro Selective Modulation of Cellular Glutathione by a Humanized Native Milk Protein Isolate in Normal Cells and Rat Mammary Carcinoma Model

Sylvain Baruchel & Ginette Viau
Department of Pediatrics and Oncology and Montreal Children’s Research Institute, McGill University, 2300 Tupper Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3H 1P3

ANTICANCER RESEARCH 16:1095-1100 (1996)

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The Use of a Whey Protein Concentrate in the Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Carcinoma: A Phase I-II Clinical Study

Renee S. Kennedy1, George P. Konok1, Gustavo Bounous2, Sylvain Baruchel3 and Timothy D.G. Lee4
1Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 2Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal Quebec, 3Department of Pediatrics and Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, 4Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

ANTICANCER RESEARCH 15: 2643-2650, 1995

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Anti-HIV and Anti-Apoptotic Activity of the Whey Protein Concentrate: Immunocal

Baruchel S, Olivier R, Wainberg M.
Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada


Objectives: The in vivo glutathione (GSH) promoting activity of undenatured Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has already been demonstrated. Here we demonstrate the anti HIV and anti Apoptotic activity of a WPC product termed IMMUNOCAL and its relation with GSH synthesis.

Methods: IMMUNOCAL is produced in linear fashion in order to maintain proteins in a non denatured form and to preserve their glutamyl cysteine residues. We tested the in vitro anti-HIV activity on cord blood mononuclear cells and MT 4 cells by studying each of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, p24 antigen production, and syncytium formation. GSH was measured by spectrophotometric recycling assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry on PBMC from HIV infected individuals (cells were stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide) (n = 6).

Results: An anti HIV activity was found at WPC concentrations between 100 micrograms/ml and 500 micrograms/ml. Inhibition of syncytium formation occurred with a IC50 of 150 micrograms/ml. PBMCs cultured with these WPC concentrations (N = 3) had a statistically significant increase in GSH synthesis when compared to untreated cells, 9.6 +/- 1.5 vs 5.4 +/- nmoles/10(7) cells, p = 0.01. HIV infected PBMCs cultured in the presence of 100 micrograms/ml of WPC were less prone to die of apoptosis than untreated cells, 15% +/- 2.6 vs 37% +/- 2.4 p <0.001.

Conclusion: IMMUNOCAL (WPC) possesses antiviral and anti-apoptotic activities which may be related to its glutathione promoting activity. A clinical trial is currently going on with children with AIDS and wasting syndrome.

Place for an Antioxidant Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

S. Baruchel1,2 G. Bounous2, P. Gold2
1McGill University, Dept. of Pediatrics; McGill AIDS Centre. Montreal. Qc. H3H 1P3, Canada 2McGill University, Dept of Medicine; McGill AIDS Centre. Montreal. Qc. H3G 1A4, Canada


Summary: Oxidative stress, a known activator of HIV replication in vitro, has a potential role as a cofactor of HIV disease progression. Arguments supporting the role of oxidative stress as a cofactor in HIV activation are summarized in this review. The role of intracellular antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH), and drugs and nutriceutical agents promoting GSH synthesis, are discussed. The review also includes the early results of nutritional interventions based on a diet enriched with IMMUNOCAL, a whey protein concentrate prepared in a proprietary manner.

Whey Proteins as a Food Supplement in HIV-Seropositive Individuals

G. Bounous, S. Baruchel, J. Falutz, P. Gold
Departments of Surgery and Medicine, The Montreal General Hospital and McGill University, Montreal, Quebec

Clin Invest Med, 16: 204-209, 1993

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Whey Proteins in Cancer Prevention

G. Bounous1, G. Batist2 and P. Gold3
1Professor of Surgery, McGill University, and Career Investigator of the Medical Research Council of Canada, 2Director, Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Oncology, McGill University, 3Chairman, Department of Medicine, McGill University, and Physician-in-Chief, The Montreal General Hospital

CANCER LETTERS, 57: 91-94, 1991

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The Biological Activity of Undenatured Dietary Whey Proteins: Role of Glutathione

G. Bounous, P. Gold
Department of Surgery, Montreal General Hospital, Research Institute, Quebec

CLIN INVEST MED, 14: 296-309, 1991

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Dietary Milk Proteins Inhibit the Development of Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Malignancy

R. Papenburg1, G. Bounous1, D. Fleiszer1, P. Gold2
Departments of 1Surgery and 2Medicine, The Montreal General Hospital and McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

TUMOR BIOL 11: 129-136, 1990

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Changes in Biliary Secretory Immunoglobulins A in Mice Fed Whey Proteins

Costantino AM, Balzola F, Bounous G.


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Immunoenhancing Property of Dietary Whey Protein in Mice: Role of Glutathione

G. Bounous, G. Batist, P. Gold
Montreal General Hospital, Quebec

CLIN INVEST MED, 12: 154-61, 1989

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The Influence of Dietary Whey Protein on Tissue Glutathione and the Diseases of Aging

Gustavo Bounous1,2, Francine Gervais1,3, Victor Amer1,3, Gerald Batist3, and Phil Gold1,3
The Montreal General Hospital Research Institute1 and McGill University, Departments of Surgery2, and Medicine3

CLIN INVEST MED, 12: 343-349, 1989

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The Immunoenhancing Property of Dietary Whey Protein Concentrate

Gustavo Bounous1,2, Patricia A.L. Kongshavn1,3 and Phil Gold1,4
1The Montreal General Hospital Research Institute, 2Departments of Surgery, 3Physiology, 4Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec


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Dietary Whey Protein Inhibits the Development of Dimethylhydrazine Induced Malignancy

G. Bounous1, R. Papenburg1, P.A.L. Kongshavn2, P. Gold3, and D. Fleiszer1
Departments of Surgery1, Physiology2, and Medicine3, Montreal General Hospital and McGill University

CLIN INV MED, 11: 213-217, 1988

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Glutathione Augments The Activation Of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes In Vivo

W. Dröge, Christiane Pottmeyer-Gerber, Heike Schmidt, and Sabine Nick
Institut für Immunologie und Genetik, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg

IMMUNOLOGY. 172:151-156, (1986)

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Mechanism of Altered B-Cell Response Induced By Changes in Dietary Protein Type in Mice

G. Bounous, N. Shenouda,1 P.A.L. Kongshavn2 and D.G. Osmond1
Department of Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1H 5N4; 1Department of Anatomy, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A 2B2; and 2Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3A 2B2

J. NUTR. 115: 1409-1417, 1985

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Differential Effect of Dietary Protein Type on the B-Cell and T-Cell Immune Responses in Mice

Gustavo Bounous and Patricia A.L. Kongshavn*
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada, J1H 5N4 and *Montreal General Hospital Research Institute and Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3G 1Y6

J. NUTR. 115: 1403-1408, 1985

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Influence of Dietary Protein Type on the Immune System of Mice

G. Bounous, L. Létourneau and P.A.L. Kongshavn†
Centre hospitalier universitaire, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; J1H 5N4 and †Montreal General Hospital Research Institute and Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3G 1Y6

J. NUTR. 113: 1415-1421, 1983

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Influence of Dietary Proteins on the Immune System of Mice

G. Bounous1 and PAL Kongshavn†
1Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, J1H 5N4 and †Montreal General Hospital Research Institute and Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3G 1Y6

J. Nutr. 112: 1747-1755, 1982. – Reprinted from THE JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
Vol. 112, no. 9, September 1982 © The American Institute of Nutrition 1982

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Influence of Dietary Lactalbumin Hydrolysate on the Immune System of Mice and Resistance to Salmonellosis

G. Bounous, M.M. Stevenson*, P.A.L. Kongshavn†
Centre hospitalier universitaire, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada; *Montreal General Hospital Research Institute and †McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada


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